Happiness is nothing more than good health and a bad memory. —Albert Schweitzer
The hippocampus is a key area of the brain involved with basic function, part of the temporal lobe and intimately related with the amygdala. The hippocampus is involved with memory storage and retrieval, while the amygdala is best known for its role in fear and alarm in the face of potential threats. When functioning properly, the hippocampus is thought to create an appropriate context for memories, helping to support a coherent narrative of what is and is not really dangerous, keeping the amygdala regulated so that it is active only when appropriate...and buffering against excess stress, both from the environment and internally-generated.
Posttraumatic and stress-related effects
In conditions where fear-based responses have become poorly regulated, such as PTSD, the hippocampus has been found to be smaller in size and less effective at grounding the alarm signaling of the amygdala. It isn’t clear whether having a smaller hippocampus is the result of trauma, a factor which predisposes to developing PTSD, or both. While there are many studies showing an association between PTSD and other psychiatric conditions, and smaller hippocampi, there are only small twin studies comparing traumatized with non-traumatized twins suggesting that smaller hippocampi may be a risk factor for subsequent PTSD. On the other hand, animal studies have shown that chronic stress directly reduces the size of the hippocampus, and effective treatment can increase the size of the hippocampus and other brain regions. Most likely, there are complex two-way relationships among hippocampus size, environmental factors, and risk for positive and negative impacts on well-being.
Reduce the pace. Speak with your child in an unhurried way, pausing frequently. Wait a few seconds after your child finishes before you begin to speak. Your own easy relaxed speech will be far more effective than any advice such as “slow down” or “try it again slowly. For some children, it is also helpful to introduce a more relaxed pace of life for awhile.
Such persistent activation of threat-response systems when no threat is present is associated with negative health effects due to connections between the hippocampus and other parts of the brain, including the HPA-axis (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) which regulates stress hormones such as cortisol and adrenaline in the brain and body. In fact, the hippocampus has been found to play a role in well-being beyond its role in PTSD.
Self-esteem, health and the hippocampus
In recent research (Lu, Li, Wang, Song and Liu, 2018), study authors highlight the role of the hippocampus for both self-esteem and physical health, seeking to understand if the hippocampus is part of the brain circuitry connecting self-esteem and greater physical health. In reviewing the prior literature, researchers offer key observations. First, higher self-esteem is associated with better health outcomes and longevity, likely via higher reported levels of positive states including optimism, relaxation, gratitude and joy. Lower self-esteem, in contrast, is associated with negative health outcomes, with increased risks for depression and anxiety, smoking and alcohol use, and increased risk for cardiovascular and other diseases.
Second, the the hippocampus is closely involved with self-esteem. This makes sense given that the hippocampus is involved with autobiographical memory, a key part of our sense of self and identity, how we feel about ourselves and the stories we tell ourselves and others about who we are. Neuroimaging research has shown that the hippocampus is larger and more active in people with greater self-esteem. Finally, the hippocampus is connected not just with psychiatric problems, but also plays a role in physical health. Research has shown, for example, that the hippocampus is smaller in size in Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, chronic jet lag and inflammation. The hippocampus is larger, on the other hand, in people with greater aerobic fitness, suggesting it may play a role in overall health.
Does the hippocampus connect self-esteem with physical health?
Given these observations, Lu and colleagues hypothesized that the hippocampus might be part of the underlying brain circuitry connecting self-esteem and physical health. In order to answer this question, they recruited 239 college students for a neuroimaging research study looking at the following factors: self-esteem, via the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES); physical health, via the Chinese Constitute Questionnaire (CCQ), a standard, validated measurement tool of general physical health; and structural MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), to look at the size of the hippocampus in study participants. Researchers then analyzed the data and performed a “mediation analysis” to determine what, if any, role hippocampal volume had in mediating the relationship between self-esteem and physical health.
Make warm memories. Your children will probably not remember anything that you say to them, but they will recall the family rituals - like bedtimes and game night - that you do together.
First, they found that self-esteem and physical health were significantly correlated with one another in their study, confirming the results of prior research. They also showed that in this group of participants self-esteem and hippocampal volume were positively correlated for both left and right sides of the brain. The larger the hippocampi, the greater the reported self-esteem. Furthermore, they also found a positive correlation with hippocampus size and physical health, again for both left and right sides. Replicating the findings of previous research, they reported three key relationships: 1) self-esteem and physical health; 2) larger hippocampus and self-esteem; 3) larger hippocampus and physical health.
Mediation Analysis Source: Lu et al., 2018
Erasing Stigma, One Vote at a Time
However, while suggestive, these findings alone don’t provide evidence that the hippocampus is a primary player in determining how higher self-esteem leads to better physical health. In order to see whether the hippocampus is part of the neural pathway connecting self-esteem and physical health, researchers analyzed the data to see whether the connection between self-esteem and physical health remained as robust after factoring out the role of the hippocampus. In other, words, we can see how much the hippocampus mediates between self-esteem and physical health by seeing what happens when we subtract the contribution of the hippocampus, and see what is left over. When study authors performed this mediation analysis, they found that (illustration) there was a statistically significant decrease in the correlation between self-esteem and physical health, showing that hippocampal size is a key factor connecting the two. However, self-esteem and physical health were still related, independent of the hippocampus, showing that it is not the only factor connecting the two.
Encourage your child to be careful when disclosing personal information. A simple rule for younger children should be that the child should not give out their name, phone number or photo without your approval. Older children using social networking sites like Facebook should be encouraged to be selective about what personal information and photos they post to online spaces. Regardless of privacy settings, once material is online you can no longer control who sees it or how it is used.
What can we do to enjoy greater self-esteem and physical well-being?
This is an early yet intriguing finding suggesting that the hippocampus has a primary, but not exclusive, role in determining how self-esteem leads to better physical health. It is tempting to speculate about the role of the hippocampus in identity and sense of self as an overarching influence in providing good sense of self, secure attachment and healthy relationships with others, and as a result better self-care, especially given how trauma can interfere with physical and emotional health, and impair self-care.
Given the scientific consensus that the planet is warming—and a recent report by the U.N.’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicting global temperatures will increase 1.5 degrees Celsius by 2040—“it’s fairly clear that we should be concerned about the effect of climate change on mental health,” says lead author Nick Obradovich, a political scientist who researches the societal impact of climate change at the MIT Media Lab. The study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, relies on data from the largest behavioral health survey in the world.
On a basic level, however, the hippocampus is involved with regulating key physiological factors, balancing stress and relaxation responses depending on the context, under the influence of “top-down” factors from higher brain centers involved with executive function and conscious control of behavior. Future research can look in more detail at other brain networks involved in hippocampal control, in order to find ways to optimize physical health as mediated by self-esteem, to understand what specific behaviors may influence hippocampal function to foster greater health and whether existing and new treatments can target key brain regions to be more effective.
Respect parenting differences. Support your spouse's basic approach to raising kids - unless it's way out of line. Criticizing or arguing with your partner will do more harm to your marriage and your child's sense of security than if you accept standards that are different from your own.
Does increasing self-esteem increase the size and function of the hippocampus? If so, what are the specific mechanisms? How does aerobic exercise increase hippocampus size, and how much of the health benefits are the result of altered hippocampal function? What tools can we develop to leverage understanding the role of the hippocampus on health? Is the hippocampus involved in the positive effects of gratitude, self-compassion, and happiness on well-being, shifting the stories we tell ourselves about who we are in literally healthier ways?
Does Beauty Signal Health?
How much of a role does the hippocampus play in ensuring we can have healthy relationships with others, a factor which is also associated with better physical health? It makes sense to keep doing things we know help us feel better about ourselves, enjoy greater self-esteem and self-efficacy, and do more of what makes us feel better and be healthier, while looking forward to understanding how best to use emerging brain science to provide additional tools for improving health and quality of life.
Limit digital media for your youngest family members. Avoid digital media for toddlers younger than 18 to 24 months other than video chatting. For children 18 to 24 months, watch digital media with them because they learn from watching and talking with you. Limit screen use for preschool children, ages 2 to 5, to just 1 hour a day of high-quality programing. Co-viewing is best when possible and for young children. They learn best when they are re-taught in the real world what they just learned through a screen. So, if Ernie just taught the letter D, you can reiterate this later when you are having dinner or spending time with your child. See Healthy Digital Media Use Habits for Babies, Toddlers & Preschoolers.